Alloys consisting of pure copper matrix and one or more other elements. Pure copper is purple red, also known as copper. The density of pure copper is 8.96 and the melting point is 1083 C. It has excellent electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, ductility and corrosion resistance. It is mainly used to make electrical equipment such as generators, buses, cables, switchgear, transformers, heat exchangers, pipes, flat-plate collectors of solar heating devices and other heat conducting devices. Commonly used copper alloys are divided into three categories: brass, bronze and white copper.
Copper alloys with zinc as the main additive element have beautiful yellow color and are collectively called brass. Copper-zinc binary alloy is called ordinary brass or simple brass. The brass above three yuan is called special brass or complex brass. Brass alloys containing less than 36% zinc are composed of solid solution and have good cold working properties. For example, brass containing 30% zinc is often used to make cartridge case, commonly known as cartridge case brass or 73 brass. Brass alloys with zinc content ranging from 36% to 42% consist of solid solutions, of which 64 brass with zinc content of 40% is the most commonly used. In order to improve the properties of ordinary brass, other elements such as aluminum, nickel, manganese, tin, silicon and lead are often added. Aluminum can improve the strength, hardness and corrosion resistance of brass, but reduce the plasticity. It is suitable for use as condensing tubes and other corrosion resistant parts of seagoing vessels. Tin can improve the strength of brass and corrosion resistance to sea water, so it is called naval brass. It is used as marine thermal equipment and propeller. Lead improves the cutting performance of brass; this free-cutting brass is often used as a part of clocks and watches. Brass castings are often used to make valves and pipe fittings.
Originally referred to as copper-tin alloy, after the addition of brass, brass and other copper alloys are called bronze, and often in the name of bronze before the name of the first major added element name. Tin bronze has good casting, friction reduction and mechanical properties. It is suitable for manufacturing bearings, worm gears and gears. Lead bronze is a widely used bearing material in modern engines and grinders. Aluminum bronze has high strength, good wear resistance and corrosion resistance. It is used for casting gears, sleeves and marine propellers with high load. Beryllium bronze and phosphorus bronze have high elastic limit and good electrical conductivity. They are suitable for manufacturing precision springs and electrical contact components. Beryllium bronze is also used to manufacture sparkless tools used in coal mines and oil depots.
Copper alloy with nickel as main additive element. Copper-nickel binary alloys are called ordinary white copper, and white copper alloys with manganese, iron, zinc, aluminum and other elements are called complex white copper. Industrial white copper can be divided into structural white copper and electrical white copper. Structural white copper is characterized by good mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and beautiful color. This kind of copper is widely used in manufacturing precision machinery, chemical machinery and ship components. Electrical white copper generally has good thermoelectric properties. Manganese copper, Kang copper and Kao copper are manganese white copper with different manganese content. They are used for manufacturing precision electrical instruments, rheostats, precision resistors, strain gauges, thermocouples, etc.
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