Brief introduction of copper bar
Copper bar is a kind of solid copper bar made by extrusion or drawing. There are many kinds of copper rods, including red copper rod, brass rod, bronze rod and white copper rod. Different kinds of copper bars have different molding processes and different characteristics. The forming process of copper bar includes extrusion, rolling, continuous casting and drawing.

Classification of copper bars materials
Copper bar materials include H59, H59-1, h59-2, h59-3, h60, h60-2, H62, h63, H65, H68, H70, H80, H90; c1100, c1020, C2680, C2800, c2600, C2801, C5191, C5210, c2200, c7521, c7541, C17200, c1070, c7701, Qsn6.5-0.1, qsn8-0.3, qsn4-0.3, bzn18-18, bzn15-20, cube2, etc.
Copper bar forming process
There are three kinds of copper rod forming process, as follows:
1. Extrusion – (rolling) – drawing – (annealing) – finishing – finished products.
2. Continuous casting (top drawing, horizontal or wheel type, crawler type, impregnation) – (rolling) – (drawing) – (annealing) – (finishing) – (finished product).
3. Continuous extrusion – drawing – (annealing) – finishing – finished products.

Forming technology of copper bars
1. Types of extrusion
(1) Forward extrusion: refers to the extrusion behavior in which the extrusion direction of the product is the same as that of the extrusion force.
(2) Backward extrusion: refers to the extrusion behavior in which the extrusion direction is opposite to the extrusion force direction.
(3) Special extrusion: refers to hydrostatic extrusion and other extrusion methods.
2. Characteristics of extrusion
(1) Features of forward extrusion: the equipment of forward extrusion is simple and widely used.
(2) Characteristics of reverse extrusion: reverse extrusion can reduce the friction between billet and extrusion cylinder, reduce extrusion force, and improve tool life, so it is widely used in small and medium sized extrusion products.
(3) Characteristics of special extrusion: special extrusion is mostly used for extrusion of special products.

3. Rolling
There are three kinds of copper bar rolling: pass rolling, spinning rolling and planetary rolling.
1. Pass rolling: the longitudinal rolling method of various profiles by the pass formed by the roll groove on the two or three high rolling mill.
2. Spinning and rolling: the metal round plate or preformed blank is fed and spun by a pair of rollers.
3. Planetary rolling: the rolling method of extruding various profiles on a rolling mill composed of one or two backup rolls and many planetary rolls around the backup rolls.

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